Six Big Losses in OEE

Six Big Losses in OEE and TPM

  • The Six Big Losses are responsible for productivity. We’ve to exclude these to ameliorate productivity.
  • One of the major goals of TPM ( Total Productive Maintenance) and
    OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) is to reduce and eliminate Six Big Losses.

Also refer to: OR

We will cover the following topics in this blog

  • Classification of Big Losses
  • Classification of Six Big Losses in OEE
  • Benefits of Elimination of Six Big Losses

Classification of Big Losses


(1) Availability Losses

  • This includes equipment failures or unplanned stops, set-up and changeover, planned stops, etc.
  • When we consider the Availability of a process, it’s a decision-making parameter for understanding the reasons for that loss and describing the time spent during unplanned stops.
  • Decreasing the time spent on unplanned events will increase the available running time for manufacturing.
  • Equipment failures or unplanned stops have a very severe impact on productivity.
  • Set-up and changeover are also responsible for the biggest cause of downtime.
  • Changeover is tackled with the help of using SMED ( Single Minute Exchange of Dies) programs.
  • The main reason for long changeover times may be the main adjustment, tooling adjustment, warm-up time, cleaning, and quality inspection, etc.

(2) Performance Losses

  • This is due to machines or man-force being in ideal conditions, minor stoppages, or small stops.
  • We can remove this loss by taking preventative action like line balancing and bottleneck analysis.
  • On the other hand, we can prioritize the tasks by recording and analyzing the minor stoppages.
  • For Reduced speed, the common reasons consist of dirty machines, damaged equipment, lubrication, environmental circumstances, worker experience, and usual startup and shutdown technique.
  • So we can improve productivity by relating and removing the above causes.

(3) Quality losses

  • This includes scrap, rework, and all types of non-conformity of the product.
  • Still, being familiar with the volume of the loss isn’t sufficient also we’ve to. consider the quality of the loss for improving productivity.
  • For improving the product quality we’ve to analyze the defect generation during the machine startup and during manufacturing.
  • After analyzing the defect we can have an analysis of the causes that are responsible for the defect generation. So by removing the causes, we can exclude the defect.

Also refer to  How to Improve oee

Classification of Six Big Losses in OEE

  1. Breakdowns
  2. Setup and Adjustment
  3. Small Stops
  4. Reduced Speed
  5. Start-up Rejects
  6. Manufacturing Rejects



(1) Breakdowns

  • The breakdown comes under the category- Of downtime.
  • Unplanned downtime elimination is critical.
  • Preventive maintenance is a key weapon to killing unessential breakdowns.
  • Root cause analysis can be done on severe breakdowns.
  • Timely validation of tools is also important in order to help unplanned downtime
    Inspection of an equipment failure is a key skill of engineering that helps a lot in the forestallment of downtime.

➨ Exemplifications of Breakdowns

  • Driving Failure,
  • Unplanned Maintenance
  • Equipment Failure,
  • General Breakdowns, etc.

(2) Setup and Adjustment

  • Setup and Adjustment come under the category- of downtime.
  • It’s generally called duration between the last good part produced before setup change and the first good part produced after the changeover.
  • Tracking of adjustment timing is veritably important in reducing this loss.
    We can use the concept of SMED ( Single Minute Exchange of Dies) for reducing the Setup and Adjustment timing.

➨ Exemplifications of Setup and Adjustment

  • Excess setup/ change over timing,
  • Material shortage,
  • Operator shortage,
  • Warm-up timing, etc.

(3) Small Stops

  • Small Stops come under the category – Of speed Loss.
  • Recording of this type of loss is very delicate.
  • Cycle time analysis is to be used to identify this type of loss.
  • Activity-wise actual-time monitoring and micro-mapping of this data help in the identification of small stops and speed reduction.

➨ Exemplifications of Small Stops

  • Component jam,
  • Sensor blocked,
  • Delivery blocked,
  • Cleaning and Checking, etc.

(4) Reduced Speed

  • Reduced Speed comes under the category – Speed Loss
  • Recording of Reduced Speed is very delicate.
  • It can be recorded by Cycle time analysis.

➨ Exemplifications of Reduced Speed

  • Poor planning,
  • Machine wear and tear,
  • Operator inefficiency,
  • Under design capacity, etc.

(5) Start-up Rejects

  • Start-up Reject comes under the category – Quality Loss.
  • “ First Time Right” concept to be adopted during each beginning  of production.
  • Effective use of production start-up check sheet can remove start-up rejects.
  • The process parameter setting plays a vital part in the manufacturing of the good part at the first time.

➨ Exemplifications of the Launch-up Rejects

  • Damage,
  • Scrap,
  • Rework,
  • Incorrect assembly, etc.

(6) Manufacturing Rejects

  • Manufacturing Reject comes under the category – Quality Loss
  • It’s related to the rejection during the manufacturing

➨ Exemplifications of the manufacturing Rejects

  • Damage,
  • Scrap,
  • Rework,
  • Incorrect assembly, etc.

Benefits of Elimination of Six Big Losses

  • It helps us to improve the process and product.
  • It reduces the losses and improves the profit
  • Overall equipment effectiveness improves by reducing these losses.


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