Waste is defined as any activity that does not add value from the customer’s perspective. If you look forward to improving any of the scenes given below lean is the right thing for your company.
- Using more raw material than necessary: Not only are you buying, transporting, and storing the extra raw material in the first place, but you then have to pay to transport and dispose of damaged or obsolete goods.
- Spending more time to develop and produce your products and services: You’re not just making the customer wait — you’re also consuming energy, wasting people’s time, and using facilities to store and move around materials and work. And there’s the opportunity cost of delayed payment.
- Making mistakes: Not only mistake frustrating to you, your coworkers, and your management, as well as the customer, but you have to spend more time and use more materials doing it over.
- Overproducing and carrying excess inventory: Excess inventory directly wastes space. Plus, it has to be handled and maintained. And what’s the sense in making more than you’re selling?
- Using more space than necessary: Space is facility and capital cost, as well as the energy and labor to maintain it.
- Spending more money than necessary: It doesn’t take an accountant to know that spending more money than you should get something done is wasteful!
- Using more equipment and tools than necessary: Not only are those extra tools and equipment expensive, but they also have to be stored, repaired, and maintained.
- Involving more people than necessary: People are extremely valuable and expensive, and they should be engaged in doing only what’s most important.
- Having incorrect or incomplete information or instructions: It results in mistakes, rework, scrap, lost time, and missed deadlines — plus, it can be hazardous.
- Having people work improperly: This is the most wasteful of all. Not only is it a direct waste of time and effort, but it’s damaging to the psyche and to morale. It’s also potentially physically harmful and dangerous.
The following are 7 waste of Lean Manufacturing. Lean Manufacturing helps you to eliminate 7 waste.
Waste is all around you, every day and everywhere. You waste your time waiting in line, waiting in traffic, or waiting because of poor service. In your home, you may have experienced walking into a room looking for something that wasn’t where it was supposed to be — wasted time and effort. In your kitchen, you may have had to throw out science experiments from your refrigerator — again, waste. Taiichi Ohno identified seven forms of waste. These seven forms are:
- Transport – Movement of product or materials between transformational operations is waste. The more you move, the more opportunity you have for damage or injury. Poor layouts and disorganization are also common causes of transport wastes. Conveyors in a Lean Manufacturing environment are not used unless there is a safety reason; even then, they’re non-value-added. They take up floor space, cause inventory accumulation, disconnect operators from other parts of the value stream, and interrupt process flow.
- Waiting – Waiting in all forms is waste. In a production environment, any time an operator’s hands are idle is a waste of that resource, whether the operator is idle due to shortages, unbalanced workloads, need for instructions, or by design (when operators watch machines cycle).
- Overproduction – Producing more than the customer requires is waste. It causes other wastes like inventory costs, manpower, and conveyance to deal with excess products, consumption of raw materials, installation of excess capacity, and so on.
- Defects – Any process, product, or service that fails to meet specifications is waste. Any processing that does not transform the product is considered non-value-added. It does not meet the criteria of done right the first time.
- Inventory – Inventory anywhere in the value stream is non-value-added. Inventory may be needed, but it is still non-value-added. It ties up financial resources. It is at risk of damage, obsolescence, spoilage, and quality issues. It takes up floor space and other resources to manage and track it. In addition, large inventories can cover up other sins in the process like imbalances, equipment issues, or poor work practices.
- Motion – Any movement of people’s bodies that does not add value to the process is waste. This includes walking, bending, lifting, twisting, and reaching. It also includes any adjustments or alignments made before the product can be transformed.
- Excess processing – Any processing that does not add value to the product or is the result of inadequate technology, sensitive materials, or quality prevention is waste. Examples include in-process protective packaging, alignment processing like basting in garment manufacturing or the removal of sprues in castings and molded part.
Mura (Unevenness) Mura is variation in operation — when activities don’t go smoothly or consistently. This is waste caused by variation in quality, cost, or delivery. Mura consists of all the resources that are wasted when quality cannot be predicted. This is the cost of testing, inspection, containment, rework, returns, overtime, and unscheduled travel to the customer.
What is Muri?
Muri (Overdoing) Muri is the unnecessary or unreasonable overburdening of people, equipment, or systems by demands that exceed capacity. Muri is the Japanese word for unreasonable, impossible, or overdoing. From a Lean perspective, muri apply to how work and tasks are designed. One of the core tenets of Lean is respect for people. If a company is asking its people to repeatedly do movements that are harmful, wasteful, or unnecessary, then the company is not respecting the people and, therefore, is not respecting the foundation of Lean. You perform ergonomic evaluations of operations to identify movements that are either harmful or unnecessary
Where lean can be implemented?
Lean can be implemented can be done in any type of organization. We did the lean implementation in many sectors including Manufacturing, Construction, Health care, and service organization. Industries can be divided into 3 types of patterns.
1) Continuous flow pattern – Low variety high volume production is considered a continuous flow pattern.
- Ensuring continuous flow
- Work/Capacity Balancing
- Importance of Maintenance Management
- Good Quality Assurance System
2) Intermittent flow pattern – Intermittent flow Characterized by mid-volume, mid-variety products/services. Intermittent flow complexities are more than continuous flow. In Intermittent flow capacity, balancing & flow are difficult but important. Intermittent flow Batch Processing – Alternative methods of work organization • Intermittent flow Capacity Estimation is hard & Production Planning & Control is complex
The issue in continuous flow pattern is,
- Excess inventory
- High overhead cost
- Enormous Supervision
- Excess coordination
- Capacity Mapping is difficult
- Long lead times
- Too much paperwork
- Poor delivery Reliability
3) Jumbled flow pattern– Jumbled flow is Non-standard, complex flow patterns (Highly customized items, customer orders for one or a few). In Jumbled flow, you will find Very High Variety, Low volumes. The jumbled flow will not offer any benefits arising out of volume or scale of operations. In this type of flow Large uncertainty, Too many entities involved Jumbled flow will take Longer time span to complete projects. Jumbled flow is Difficult to dedicate resources exclusively for requirements – The sharing of common resources is a reality.
25 Top Lean Tool
What is 5S?
5s help you to Organize the work area:
- Sort (eliminate which is not needed)
- Set In Order (organize remaining items,)
- Shine (clean and inspect work area)
- Standardize (standardize everything in plant)
- Sustain (regularly apply the standards)
How does 5S help to organize the work area?
5 s Eliminates waste that results from a poorly organized work area such as wasting time for looking and finding the right tool. 5s is one of the most implemented lean tools.
What is Andon?
Andon is a nothing but Visual feedback system used at shop-floor that help to indicates production status, related alerts when assistance is needed, and empowers operators to stop the production process.
How does Andon help?
Andon helped as as a real-time communication tool for the workplace that brings immediate attention to problems as they occur – so they can be instantly addressed.
What is Bottleneck Analysis?
Bottle neck analysis will help you Identify which part of the manufacturing process limits the overall throughput and improve the performance of that part of the process.
How does Bottleneck Analysis help?
Bottleneck analysis Improves throughput by strengthening the weakest link in the manufacturing process. This will also improve the lead time, save resources.
What is Continuous Flow?
Continuous flow Manufacturing help organization where work-in-process smoothly flows through production with minimal buffers between steps of the manufacturing process.
How does Continuous Flow help?
Continuous Eliminates many forms of waste such as station inventory, waiting time, and transport.
What is Gemba?
Gemba is a philosophy that reminds us to get out of our offices and spend time on the plant floor – the place where real action occurs.
How does Gemba help?
Gemba Promotes a deep and thorough understanding of real-world manufacturing issues – by first-hand observation and by talking with plant floor employees.
What is Heijunka?
Heijunka is a form of production scheduling that intentionally manufactures in much smaller batches by sequencing (mixing) product variants within the same process.
How does Heijunka help?
Heijunka Reduces delivery times (since each product or variant is manufactured more frequently) and inventory (since batches are smaller).
What is Hoshin Kanri?
Hoshin Kanri help aligning organisation the goals of the company or Strategy, with the plans of middle management called Tactics, and the work performed on the plant floor Action.
How does Hoshin Kanri help?
Hoshin Kanri Ensures that progress towards strategic goals is consistent and thorough – eliminating the waste that comes from poor communication and inconsistent direction. Hoshin kanri is another lean tool that help you to improve a lot.
What is Jidoka automation ?
Jidoka automation help you Design equipment to parially automate the manufacturing process. Partial automation always less expensive than full automation. This will also intent to automatically stop when defects are detected.
How does Jidoka automation help?
After Jidoka automation is implemented , Machine operators can frequently monitor multiple stations & in turn reducing labor costs. This will also help many quality issues can be detected immediately which result improved quality.
What is Just-In-Time?
Just in time help you to get parts through pull concentconcept based on production and customer demand instead of pushing parts through production based on projected demand. Just is time an amazing lean tool help you to reduce inventory.
How does Just-In-Time help?
Jit Help you to reduce your inventory Effectively. JIT also helps organization to Improves cash flow and reduces space requirements.
What is Kaizen?
Kaizen means continuous improvement. Kaizen is a toll where employees work together proactively to achieve regular, incremental improvements in the process and help to reduce waste in the organization.
How does Kaizen help?
Kaizen helps to reduce waste in the organization. Build teamwork. An organization is able to generate culture change too. kaizen is an amazing lean tool that brings continuous change
What is Kanban?
Kanban card or kanaban is a method of regulating the flow of goods both within the factory and with outside suppliers and customers. Based on automatic replenishment through signal kanban cards that indicate when more goods are needed.
How does Kanban help?
Eliminates waste from inventory and overproduction. Kanban or kannaan cards Can eliminate the need for physical inventories.
What are KPIs?
KPI or key performance metrics designed to track and encourage progress towards the special goals of the organization. Effectively promoted KPI or key performance metrics can be extremely powerful drivers of behavior and help you achieve progress and end result.
How do KPIs help?
The best manufacturing KPIs:
- You must select KPI or key performance indicator that Are aligned with top-level strategic goals organization.
- KPI or key performance indicator help you to eliminate waste from the industries
- KPI also help individual to track his / her own progress and contribution in achieving companies goal
What is Muda?
Muda is nothing but waste. Means Anything in the manufacturing process that does not add value from the customer’s perspective.
How does Muda help?
Muda does not help. The elimination of muda waste)is the primary focus of lean manufacturing. If your organization has less muda means you are productive.
What is Overall Equipment Effectiveness?
OEE is highly effective Framework for measuring productivity loss for a given manufacturing process. Three categories of loss are tracked:
- Availability (e.g. downtime)
- Performance (e.g. slow cycles)
- Quality (e.g. rejects)
How does Overall Equipment Effectiveness help?
OEE Provides a benchmark/baseline and a means to track progress in eliminating waste from a manufacturing process. Few world class organization like to achieve OEE 92 % & higher.
What is PDCA?
An iterative methodology for implementing improvements:
- Plan (establish plan and expected results)
- Do (implement plan)
- Check (verify expected results achieved)
- Act (review and assess; do it again)
How does PDCA help?
Applies a scientific approach to making improvements:
- Plan (develop a hypothesis)
- Do (run experiment)
- Check (evaluate results)
- Act (refine your experiment; try again)
What is Poka-Yoke?
Poka yoke is a mistake proofing tool that help you reduce mistake detection and prevention.
How does Poka-Yoke help?
By doing simple poke- yoke can eliminate waste or mistakes and can make your organization more productive.
What is Root Cause Analysis?
A problem-solving methodology that focuses on resolving the underlying problem instead of applying quick fixes that only treat immediate symptoms of the problem. A common approach is to ask why five times – each time moving a step closer to discovering the true underlying problem.
How does Root Cause Analysis help?
Helps to ensure that a problem is truly eliminated by applying corrective action to the “root cause” of the problem.
What is Single-Minute Exchange of Dies?
What is Single-Minute Exchange of Dies?Reduce setup (changeover) time to less than 10 minutes. Techniques include:
- Convert setup steps to be external (performed while the process is running)
- Simplify internal setup (e.g. replace bolts with knobs and levers)
- Eliminate non-essential operations
- Create Standard work instructions
How does Single-Minute Exchange of Dies help?
Enables manufacturing in smaller lots, reduces inventory, and improves customer responsiveness.
What is Six Big Losses?
Six categories of productivity loss that are almost universally experienced in manufacturing:
- Small Stops
- Reduced Speed
- Startup Rejects
- Production Rejects
How does Six Big Losses help?
It will help organization to identified losses in the organization. It also give clarity to the organization for type of losses and where to focus.
What are SMART Goals?
Goals that are: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time-Specific.
How do SMART Goals help?
It helps to ensure that goals are effective.
What is Standardized Work?
Documented procedures for manufacturing that capture best practices (including the time to complete each task). Must be “living” documentation that is easy to change.
How does Standardized Work help?
Eliminates waste by consistently applying best practices. It gives a strong platform to & benchmark for future improvement activities.
What is Takt Time?
The pace of production (e.g. manufacturing one piece every 34 seconds) that aligns production with customer demand. Calculated as Planned Production Time / Customer Demand.
How does Takt Time help?
Provides a simple, consistent and intuitive method of pacing production. Is easily extended to provide an efficiency goal for the plant floor (Actual Pieces / Target Pieces).
What is Total Productive Maintenance?
A holistic approach to maintenance that focuses on proactive and preventative maintenance to maximize the operational time of equipment. TPM blurs the distinction between maintenance and production by placing a strong emphasis on empowering operators to help maintain their equipment.
How does Total Productive Maintenance help?
Creates a shared responsibility for equipment that encourages greater involvement by plant floor workers. In the right environment, this can be very effective in improving productivity (increasing uptime, reducing cycle times, and eliminating defects).
What is Value Stream Mapping?
A tool used to visually map the flow of production. Shows the current and future state of processes in a way that highlights opportunities for improvement.
How does Value Stream Mapping help?
Exposes waste in the current processes and provides a roadmap for improvement through the future state.
What is Visual Factory?
Visual indicators, displays, and controls used throughout manufacturing plants to improve communication of information.
How does Visual Factory help?
It makes the state and condition of manufacturing processes easily accessible and very clear – to everyone.
Principle 1: Base your management decisions on a long term philosophy, even at the expense of short-term financial goals.
Principle 2: Create continuous process flow to bring problems to the surface.
Principle 3: Use “Pull” system to avoid overproduction.
Principle 4: Level out the workload (heijunka)
Principle 5: Build a culture of stopping to fix problems, to get quality right at the first time.
Principle 6: Standardized tasks are the foundation for continuous improvements and employee empowerment.
Principle 7: Use Visual Control so no problems are hidden.
Principle 8: Use only reliable, thoroughly tested technology that servers your people and process.
Principle 9: Grow leaders who thoroughly understands the work, live philosophy and teach it to others.
Principle 10: Develop exceptional people and teams who follow your company’s philosophy.
Principle 11: Respect your extended network of partners and suppliers by challenging them and helping them improve.
Principle 12: Go to Gemba and see for yourself to thoroughly understand the situation (Genchi Genbutsu).
Principle 13: Make decision slowly by consensus (use cross-functional teams), thoroughly considering all options; implement decisions rapidly.
Principle 14: Become a learning organization through relentless reflection (hansei) and continuous improvements (Kaizen)
8 Waste of Lean Manufacturing
What is Lean Production
3 Lean Basic Fundamental